In 1800 an English surgeon named John Grosvenor and practitioner of chirurgy (healing with the hands) wrote about the value of frictions for the relief of grout, stiff joints, and rheumatism.
1856/1858: Brothers Charles and George Taylor study in Sweden, then introduce
“The Swedish Movement Cure” to US when they opened a clinic in NY. The 2 year education program at Royal Central Institute Sweden, was established in 1813 and their studies included anatomy and physiology (A&P), hygiene (health), pathology, movement prescriptions, and work in clinics/hospitals. Using a system of movement and manipulation the “manual therapy” offered a new elevated hands on treatment also known as “medical gymnast”.
Between 1828 to 1917, a man by the name of Andrew Taylor Still started the American Osteopathic medicine; a practice that focuses on the entire person rather than the various parts. Osteopathic medicine looks at the relationship of bones, muscles, organs, and nerves to effectively treat people and uses the body’s own abilities to heal itself.
Somewhere between 1874-1875 (I’ve also read somewhere it was 1879) Dr. Douglas Graham of Boston wrote extensively about the benefits of “massage” (first in US to use the term). Founding member of American Physical Education Assn. in 1885. Graham also described Lomi Lomi massage (originated from Hawaii) is a very popular modality even to this day.
Late 1880’s (not specified) New York
Form of cross-fiber friction introduced by Canada’s deep muscle technique and muscle groups. Practitioners trained to fix specific problems; fast results for both pain and stress.
ALSO at this point John Harvey Kellogg at Battle Creek Sanitarium began using hydrotherapy techniques. Treatments that are still being used in spas to this day (i.e. body wraps and scrubs).
At this time the terms masseuse and masseur were used to refer to the manual therapists who were trained in soft tissue manipulations; brought over by Johann Mezer a European medical doctor. The classic categories of techniques used in massage (still used today by the way): effleurage, petrissage, friction, and tapotement. Vibration devices were added later to help soften stubborn tight tissue (still used especially by chiropractors). Research on benefits of massage and use of ice packs in management of anemia were also available at this point in time.
1890 Health reformers educated for natural approaches to promote good health and alternative medicine, i.e. massage.
Part three: we delve more into why massage became more regulated and what the medical procedures and standards are in place even to this day.